Business Model

Business terminology often gets thrown around, sometimes interchangeably, leading to confusion even among seasoned entrepreneurs. Two such terms, “Business Model” and “Operating Model,” are frequently used in discussions about business strategy and planning. While they are interconnected and both play a vital role in a company’s success, it’s essential to understand the distinctions between them for effective business management and strategic planning.

Defining the Terms:

Business Model:

A business model serves as a blueprint that outlines how a company creates, delivers, and captures value. Essentially, it answers the fundamental question, “How does this company make money?” Trade models encompass various elements, including target customers, value propositions, revenue streams, and distribution channels. In essence, it defines the core aspects of how a business operates and generates revenue.

Operating Model:

On the other hand, the operating model is more focused on the internal workings of a business. It details how a company organizes its resources, structures its processes, and manages its day-to-day operations to deliver on the promises made by the trade model. The operating model delves into questions like “How does this company function on a daily basis?” and “What are the key processes and capabilities required to execute the business model effectively?”

Key Differences:

Scope and Focus:

The primary distinction between a business model and an operating model lies in their scope and focus. A business model is broader in scope, addressing high-level concepts like market positioning, customer segments, and revenue generation. It provides a strategic view of the company’s overall direction. In contrast, an operating model is more specific, dealing with the internal mechanics, processes, and resources needed to make the work model a reality. It is more tactical in nature and focuses on the day-to-day operations.

Strategic vs. Tactical:

Work models are inherently strategic in nature. They guide the overall direction and purpose of the company by defining the “what” and “why” of a business. Business models set the stage for a company’s long-term vision and mission. Operating models, conversely, are tactical. They provide a detailed roadmap for implementing the strategic decisions outlined in the business model. Operating models address the “how” of running the business efficiently on a day-to-day basis.

Customer-Centric vs. Process-Centric:

Trade models are typically customer-centric. They revolve around creating value for customers and capturing value in return. Business models emphasize the customer experience, market demand, and product/service offerings. Conversely, operating models are process-centric. They focus on optimizing internal operations, resource allocation, and workflow efficiencies to ensure that the business can deliver on its promises.

Long-Term vs. Short-Term:

Trade models are designed for the long term and are relatively stable over time. They set the foundation for a company’s growth and sustainability. Work models are not something that changes frequently; rather, they provide a strategic framework for the company’s future. In contrast, operating models can change and adapt more frequently to address immediate operational needs and market dynamics. They are more flexible and responsive to short-term challenges and opportunities.

Interplay Between Business and Operating Models:

While business and operating models are distinct concepts, they are closely intertwined and complement each other in the business ecosystem. A well-defined trade model informs the creation of a complementary operating model. Here’s how they work together:


The operating model should align with and support the business model. For example, if a business model emphasizes innovation and premium customer service, the operating model should allocate resources and design processes that facilitate innovation and exceptional customer experiences. Alignment ensures that the business can deliver on its strategic promises effectively.


An effective operating model is essential for executing the strategies outlined in the business model. It ensures that the company can efficiently deliver on its promises to customers, shareholders, and other stakeholders. A misalignment between the two models can lead to inefficiencies and difficulties in executing the business strategy.


As market conditions change, both the trade model and the operating model may need adjustments. A flexible operating model allows a company to pivot and respond to external shifts while staying true to its core trading model. This adaptability is crucial for survival and growth in a dynamic business environment.

By recognizing the differences and interplay between these two models, businesses can enhance their strategic planning and operational excellence, ultimately leading to sustainable success. It’s not enough to have a brilliant business model; you must also have an operating model that can translate that brilliance into action and results.


Understanding the distinction between a business model and an operating model is critical for business leaders and entrepreneurs. While the model defines the overall direction and revenue-generation strategy, the operating model outlines the internal processes and capabilities needed to execute that strategy effectively. A successful business requires not only a well-crafted business model but also an operating model that can bring it to life in a dynamic and ever-changing business landscape.

By Pankajsharma

Hi, I’m Pankaj Sharma from Delhi and working as a freelancer educational blogger, photographer, designer, etc.